This is a short list of terms associated with life cycles:mitosis, meiosis (R!), syngamy (Y!)vegetative reproduction (cloning), sexual reproduction and asexual reproductionresult of syngamy: zygote; participant of syngamy: gametesmaller gamete: male, bigger gamete: female; movable male gamete: spermatozoon (sperm), motionless female gamete: oocyte (egg cell)result of meiosis: sporeshaplont (plants: gametophyte) and diplont (plants: sporophyte)sporic life cycle (like in plants), gametic life cycle (like in animals) and sporic (only protists)sporic: gametophyte dominance (mosses) and sporophyte dominance (ferns and seed plants)Note that Mendel “saw” genes mixed, segregated and then immediately mixed/recombined again, whereas in the life cycle of unicellular eukaryote, they are segregated, then mixed/recombined and immediately segregated again.
What, biologically, defines whether an organism is female or male, and why does it matter? The question is largely irrelevant in unicellular organisms with multiple mating types. For example, the microbe Tetrahymena has seven different mating types, all of which appear morphologically identical. An individual Tetrahymena cell can mate with another individual of a different mating type but not with an individual of the same mating type as itself.
Freshwater supply is one of the most important ecosystem services. In 2014, global water consumption was 3999 km3 per year (over 1,000 trillion gallons!). The greatest use of this water is for irrigation in agriculture, but significant quantities of water are also extracted for public and municipal use, as well as industrial applications and power generation (figure (PageIndex a )).