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I am a physicist but I have always wanted to understand how my digestion takes place in as much detail as possible. I have no idea about books or reference on the subject of Gastro-intestinal and digestive physiology. Can you help me?
If you have no medical background at all, you will need a general text that teaches more than just digestive physiology. That is because you need to understand the function of other systems that have an influence over the digestive system (for example, the peripheral nervous system).
Here are a few good general references to get you started:
- Physiology by Linda Costanzo, arguably the most synthetic. Extremely good, but I am unsure of its value for someone who has no medical background.
- Vander's Human Physiology, arguably the simplest, used in first year of medical school.
- Medical Physiology by Walter F. Boron, arguably the most complex, I would not recommend it as a first try.
You can start by trying to read the digestive physiology chapters, and look up the knowledge you lack in other chapters.
The GI tract is a long tube of varying diameter beginning at the mouth and ending in the anus. The glands of the digestive system consist of the tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. Digestion can be divided into three stages – the oral phase (mouth), the gastric phase (stomach) and the intestinal phase (small intestine)– depending on the position of food within the digestive tract. At each stage, different nutrients are digested, under varying circumstances.
The GI tract begins to form early during the development of the human body, in the third week after fertilization. Around the 16 th day of development, the primitive gut is formed through invaginations of embryonic cells. The initial structures of the digestive system extend from the buccopharyngeal membrane to the cloacal membrane. The mouth forms when the buccopharyngeal membrane breaks down and opens the digestive tract to amniotic fluid. For the rest of fetal development, amniotic fluid is actively swallowed.
Gastrointestinal Physiology, Development, & Epithelial Biology
Basic, clinical, and translational research on GI development, diseases, and disorders.
The Gastrointestinal (GI) Physiology, Development, and Epithelial Biology program supports basic and translational research on the development, structure, and function of the GI tract in health and disease. This program focuses on GI development, regeneration, and healing, including the role of gastrointestinal stem cells and stem cell differentiation basic biology of the GI epithelium, including studies on the structure and function of the epithelium, interactions between the epithelium and other components of the GI tract, and the integrity of the epithelium as a barrier the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating transport and absorption of water, ions, sugars, amino acids/peptides, lipids, vitamins, and minerals across the epithelium requirements, bioavailability, and metabolism of nutrients and other dietary components at the organ, cellular, and subcellular levels in normal and diseased states gut barrier function and permeability and normal and abnormal function of the enteric nervous system, including the structure and function of GI hormones peptides and bile acid metabolism. Also of interest are studies that explore the role of taste receptors in the GI tract in nutrient absorption and other metabolic functions.
Gastrointestinal Physiology, 9th Edition
Gain a foundational understanding of gastrointestinal physiology and how the GI system functions in health and disease. Gastrointestinal Physiology, a volume in the Mosby Physiology Series, explains the fundamentals of this complex subject in a cl. . view more
Gain a foundational understanding of gastrointestinal physiology and how the GI system functions in health and disease. Gastrointestinal Physiology , a volume in the Mosby Physiology Series, explains the fundamentals of this complex subject in a clear and concise manner, while helping you bridge the gap between normal function and disease with pathophysiology content throughout the book.
- Helps you easily master the material in a systems-based curriculum with learning objectives, Clinical Concept boxes, highlighted key words and concepts, chapter summaries, self-study questions, and a comprehensive exam.
- Keeps you current with recent advances in gastrointestinal physiology with coverage of the physiological significance of gastrointestinal peptides the regulation of mucosal growth and cancer details surrounding acid secretion and peptic ulcers and more.
- Includes clear, 2-color diagrams that simplify complex concepts.
- Features clinical commentaries that show you how to apply what you've learned to real-life clinical situations.
- Covers the regulation of pancreatic secretion and gallbladder contraction the transport processes for the absorption of nutrients facts about fat absorption and the regulation of food intake.
- Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.
Complete the Mosby Physiology Series! Systems-based and portable, these titles are ideal for integrated programs.
Mastication and Swallowing
Ingestion (the intake of food) occurs in the mouth where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The teeth have different shapes to perform different tasks the incisors (chisel-shaped anterior teeth) are used to cut into food, the canines (pointed teeth located lateral to the incisors) are used to tear or pierce food, and the premolars and molars (having broad surfaces) are used for crushing and grinding food. Chewing (mastication) of food is accompanied by mixing of the food with saliva. The mouth is normally kept moist by the continual production of small quantities of saliva by numerous tiny intrinsic salivary glands located in the inner lining of the mouth.
During chewing, much greater quantities of saliva are secreted by three pairs of extrinsic salivary glands, namely the parotid glands (located under the skin anterior to each earlobe), the submandibular glands (located under the base of the tongue), and the sublingual glands (located in the floor of the mouth). Saliva is a watery fluid containing several components including lysozyme, an enzyme that kills bacteria, and salivary amylase, an enzyme that begins the digestion of starch.
Once the food has been chewed into a soft, flexible mass called a bolus, it is swallowed for delivery to the stomach. On its journey, the bolus passes through the pharynx and then through the esophagus, a straight muscular tube that descends through the thoracic (chest) cavity, anterior to the spine. Each bolus of food is propelled through the esophagus by gravity, and by the process of peristalsis, a wave of muscular contraction that pushes the bolus downward. The lower end of the esophagus, which passes through a hole in the diaphragm to meet the stomach within the abdominal cavity, has a lower esophageal (or gastroesophageal or cardiac) sphincter which briefly relaxes to allow the bolus of food to enter the stomach.
About the Author
Leonard R. Johnson received a Ph.D. in physiology from the University of Michigan and then trained with Dr. Morton I. Grossman at UCLA. He spent 17 years as a Professor of Physiology at the University of Texas Medical School in Houston before moving to the University of Tennessee Health Science Center as the Thomas A. Gerwin Professor and Chairman of the Department of Physiology. He is the author or coauthor of over 250 papers on gastrointestinal physiology and holds an NIH MERIT Award. Currently he is the Vice Chancellor for Research at Tennessee.
Affiliations and Expertise
Thomas A. Gerwin Professor and Chairman, Department of Physiology, The University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN Vice Chancellor for Research and Thomas A. Gerwin Professor of Physiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN, USA
The glory of the digestive system exists, in part, because of the many different functions it carries out. Eating alone is not enough. As you have seen before, the structure of the different organs will vary according to their functions. The functions of the digestive system are ?
- Ingestion. Ingestion is the act of eating. Food is fuel, and we have to get it inside somehow!
- Mechanical digestion. Much of what we eat is rather large by cellular standards, and it needs to be broken down into smaller pieces (without actually changing the molecules) to increase the surface area available for the enzymes. Mechanical digestion consists of tearing, chewing, and the churning effects of peristalsis.
- Peristalsis. Once we swallow, the ride begins! Food needs to travel about 30 feet (9 meters) before all is said and done luckily muscle tone in our organs shortens that length by about half. Peristalsis is the rhythmic contractions of our digestive organs that propel the food.
- Chemical digestion. As the food travels along the digestive tract, various enzymes are released, which chemically change the complex polymers into the basic monomers that our bodies will ultimately use.
- Secretion. It is important to note that digestive enzymes can digest your own body! The organs thus need to protect themselves by secreting various fluids.
- Absorption. The monomers and water in the gastrointestinal tract need to be transported to the body via the bloodstream, but they first need to be absorbed into the blood.
- Storage and toxin processing. All of the blood from the abdominal digestive organs passes through the liver, which stores some sugar (as glycogen) for emergencies, converts other sugars into fat, and breaks down toxic chemicals before too much gets to the body.
- Excretion and egestion. Egestion is the release of wastes (feces) we do not use, via the anus this release is also called defecation (to ?de-feces? oneself).
Excerpted from The Complete Idiot's Guide to Anatomy and Physiology 2004 by Michael J. Vieira Lazaroff. All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Used by arrangement with Alpha Books, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.
Clinical gastroenterologists, Grad-level lecturer, American College of Gastroenterology members, Internists, and Physiologists
Section I: Basic Cell Physiology and Growth of the GI Tract
1. Transcription and Epigenetic Regulation
Juanita L. Merchant and Longchuan Bai
2. Translation and Posttranslational Processing of GI Peptides
Cheryl E. Gariepy and Chris J. Dickinson
3. Transmembrane Receptors for Endogenous Ligands and Associated Signals
4. Gastrointestinal Hormones: Gastrin, CCK, Somatostatin, Ghrelin
Graham J. Dockray
5. Post-Pyloric Gastrointestinal Peptides
Ella W. Englander and George H. Greeley
6. GI Peptide Hormones Regulating Energy and Glucose Homeostasis
Daniel J. Drucker
7. Growth Factors in the GI Tract
John Barnard and Kirk McHugh
8. Developmental Signaling Networks: The Wnt/APC/b-catenin pathway
9. Hedgehog Signaling in Gastrointestinal Morphogenesis and Morphostasis
Gijs R. van den Brink, Maikel P. Peppelenbosch, and Drucilla J. Roberts
10. Developmental Signaling Networks: The Notch Pathway
Guy R. Sander, Hanna Krysinska, and Barry Powell
11. Physiology of Gastrointestinal Stem Cells
Alda Vidrich, Jenny M. Buzan, Sarah A. De La Rue, and Steven M. Cohn
12. Apoptosis in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Leonard R. Johnson
13. Molecular Aspects and Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function During Post-Natal Development
James F. Collins, Liqun Bai, Hua Xu and Fayez K. Ghishan
14. Effect of Aging on the Gastrointestinal Tract
Adhip P.N. Majumdar and Marc D. Basson
15. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Normal Cell Growth
Mark R. Hellmich and B. Mark Evers
16. Mucosal Repair and Restitution
Mark R. Frey and D. Brent Polk
17. Mechanisms of GI Malignancies
John P. Lynch and Anil K. Rustgi
Section II: Neural Gastroenterology and Motility
18. Development of Enteric Nervous System
19. Cellular Physiology of Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle
Gabriel M. Makhlouf and Karnam S. Murthy
20. Organization and Electrophysiology of Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Smooth Muscle Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Kenton M. Sanders, Sang Don Koh, and Sean M. Ward
21. Functional Histoanatomy of the Enteric Nervous System
Simon JH Brookes and Marcello Costa
22. Physiology of Prevertebral Sympathetic Ganglia
Joseph H. Szurszewski and Steven M. Miller
23. Cellular Neurophysiology of Enteric Neurons
24. Integrative Functions of the Enteric Nervous System
Jackie D. Wood
25. Extrinsic Sensory Afferent Nerves Innervating the Gastrointestinal Tract
Michael J. Beyak, David C.E. Bulmer, Wen Jiang, Christopher D. Keating, Weifang Rong, and David Grundy
26. Processing of Gastrointestinal Sensory Signals in the Brain
Anthony R. Hobson and Qasim Aziz
27. Enteric Neural Regulation of Mucosal Secretion
Helen J. Cooke and Fievos L. Christofi
28. Effect of Stress on Intestinal Mucosal Function
Johan D. Söderholm and Mary H. Perdue
29. Effect of Stress on Gastrointestinal Motility
30. HPA-Axis In Gastrointestinal Physiology
31. Neural Regulation of Gastrointestinal Blood Flow
32. Neural Control of the Gallbladder and Sphincter of Oddi
Gary M. Mawe, Gino T.P. Saccone, and Maria J. Pozo
33. Brainstem Control of the Gastric Function
Richard C. Rodgers, Gerlinda E. Hermann, and R. Alberto Travagli
34. Neural and Hormonal Controls of Food Intake and Satiety
Timothy H. Moran
35. Pharyngeal Motor Function
36. Motor Function of the Esophagus
Ray E. Clouse and Nicholas E. Diamant
37. Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Gastric Reservoir Function
38. Small Intestinal Motility
William L. Hasler
39. Large Intestinal Motility
40. Neural Control of Pelvic Floor Muscles
David B. Vodusek and Paul Enck
41. Pathophysiology Underlying the Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Jackie D. Wood
Section III. Gastrointestinal Immunology and Inflammation
42. Innate Immune Responses in the GI Tract: Sensors and Effectors
43. Biology of Gut Immunoglobulins
Finn-Eirik Johansen, Elizabeth Yen, Bonny Dickinson, Massaru Yoshida, Steve Claypool, Richard S. Blumberg, and Wayne I. Lencer
44. Mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Inflammation
Dawn A. Israel and Richard M. Peek Jr.
45. Mechanisms and Consequences of Intestinal Inflammation in the Gut
46. Recruitment of Inflammatory and Immune Cells in the Gut: Physiology and Pathophysiology
D. Neil Granger, Christopher Kevil, and Matthew B. Grisham
47. Physiology of Host-Pathogen Interactions
Kim Hodges, V.K. Viswanathan and Gail Hecht
Section IV. Physiology of Secretion
48. Salivary Secretion
49. Regulation of Gastric Acid Secretion
Arthur Shulkes, Graham S. Baldwin, and Andrew S. Giraud
50. Gastroduodenal Mucosal Defense
Marshall H. Montrose, Yasutada Akiba, Koji Takeuchi, and Jonathan D. Kaunitz
51. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Gastric Physiology
Linda C. Samuelson
52. Structure-Function Relationships in the Pancreatic Acinar Cell
Fred S. Gorelick and James D. Jamieson
53. Stimulus-Secretion Coupling in Pancreatic Acinar Cells
John A. Williams and David I. Yule
54. Cell Physiology of Pancreatic Ducts
B.E. Argent, M.A. Gray, M.C. Steward, and R.M. Case
55. Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion
Rodger A. Liddle
56. Bile Formation and the Enterohepatic Circulation
Paul Dawson, Ben Shneider and Alan Hofmann
57. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Organic Anion Transport
Allan W. Wolkoff
58. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Detoxification
Karen F. Murray, Donald J. Messner, and Kris V. Kowdley
59. Physiology of Cholangiocytes
Anatoliy I. Masyuk, Tatyana V. Masyuk, and Nicholas F. LaRusso
60. Gallbladder Function
Sum P. Lee and Rahul Kuve r
Section V. Digestion and Absorption
61. Tight Junctions and the Intestinal Barrier
Thomas Y. Ma, and James M. Anderson
62. Protein Sorting in the Exocytic and Endocytic Pathways in Polarized Epithelial Cells
Stephen J. Hunt and W. James Nelson
63. Physiology of the Circulation of the Small Intestine
Philip T. Nowicki
64. Sugar Absorption
Ernest M. Wright, Donald D. F. Loo, Bruce A. Hirayama, and Eric Turk
65. Protein Digestion and Absorption
Vadivel Ganapathy, Naren Gupta, and Robert G. Martindale
66. Lipid Digestion and Absorption
Judy Storch and Nada Abumurad
67. Genetic Regulation of Intestinal Lipid Transport and Metabolism
Zhouji Chen and Nicholas O. Davidson
68. Digestion and Intestinal Absorption of Dietary Carotenoids & Vitamin A
Alexandrine During and Earl H. Harrison
69. Vitamin D3: Synthesis, Actions, and Mechanisms in the Intestine and Colon
J. Wesley Pike, Makoto Watanuki, and Nirupama K. Shevde
70. Vitamin E and Vitamin K Metabolism
Ronald J. Sokol, Richard Bruno, and Maret Traber
71. Intestinal Absorption of Water-Soluble Vitamins
Hamid M. Said and Bellur Seetharam
72. Water Transport in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Jay R. Thiagarajah and Alan S. Verkman
73. Na+/H+ Exchange in Mammalian Digestive Tract
Pawel R. Kiela and Fayez K. Ghishan
74. Intestinal Anion Absorption
Pradeep K. Dudeja and Krishnamurthy Ramaswamy
75. Ion Channels of the Epithelia of the Gastrointestinal Tract
John Cuppoletti and Danuta H. Malinowska
76. Integrated Physiology of Intestinal Electrolyte Transport
Kim Barrett and Stephen Keel y
77. Molecular Mechanisms of Intestinal Transport of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium
James F. Collins and Fayez K. Ghishan
78. Iron Absorption
Nancy C. Andrews
79. Trace Element Absorption and Transport
Robert J. Cousins
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About the companion website, x
1 Structure and innervation of hollow viscera, 1
Laura D. Wood & Elizabeth A. Montgomery
2 Gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of gut function in health and disease, 15
John Del Valle
3 Gastrointestinal motility, 33
Ikuo Hirano & Darren Brenner
4 Gastrointestinal immunology and ecology, 46
Shehzad Z. Sheikh & Scott E. Plevy
5 Gastric physiology, 58
Mitchell L. Schubert
6 Structure and function of the exocrine pancreas, 78
James H. Grendell
7 Absorption and secretion of fluid and electrolytes, 92
Lawrence R. Schiller
8 Absorption of nutrients, 108
Lawrence R. Schiller
9 Hepatic structure and function, 129
Michelle T. Long & Lawrence S. Friedman
10 The splanchnic circulation, 149
Peter R. Kvietys & D. Neil Granger
11 Composition and circulation of the bile, 164
Allan W. Wolkoff
12 Bilirubin metabolism, 173
Allan W. Wolkoff
Or labor, delivery of the fetus by the viviparous mammal. Birth is also known as parturition. Cessation of all life (metabolic) processes. Death may involve the organism as a whole (somatic death) or may be confined to cells and tissues within the organism. In the body, all the organs and tissues involved in the digestion of food. In animals, these consist of the mouth, stomach, intestines, and their associated glands.
Body control system composed of a group of glands that maintain a stable internal environment by producing chemical regulatory substances called hormones.