Pantanal Biome

Pantanal: biome with rich biodiversity

General characteristics of the biome

The Pantanal is a biome known for its characteristic of flooding for most of its extension and times of the year. Pantanal is reminiscent of our Brazilian Midwest, extensive cattle-raising territories, which have served as a setting for Brazilian dramaturgy.

Its locality and low relief make it completely flooded in times and periods of rain. The riverside population of this region has customs already adapted for this time of year, where you must go by boat and move the animals to the less affected areas.

Biome Location and General Data

The Pantanal is geographically located in the southern regions of the state of Mato Grosso and in the northwest of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It is home to the Pantanal National Park, which is considered a UNESCO World Heritage Site and biosphere reserve.

Its flat territory aggregates about two hundred and fifty thousand square kilometers in length, the largest floodable territory on the planet, and connects with Paraguay's watershed.

Fauna and Flora Characteristics

One of the richest fauna among all biomes, the Pantanal has several species of fish, mammals, reptiles and birds. According to some studies, this biome has approximately one thousand species of butterflies, six hundred and fifty species of birds, one hundred and twenty species of mammals, two hundred and sixty species of fish and ninety species of reptiles.

On the other hand, the Pantanal vegetation varies according to the altitude and involves the grasses that are medium and small trees, creeping plants and shrub vegetation.

Examples of animals and plants

With so much biodiversity of the fauna of the Pantanal ecosystem we can highlight some as:

The birds: Blue Macaw that is endangered, as are the toucans.

Reptiles: Alligators are famous in these areas, as are lizards, snakes and jabutis.

Mammals: capybaras, giant otters, bush pig, anteater, bush dog, tapir, sloth, jaguar, maned wolf, capuchin monkey, howler monkey, coati, armadillo are some of the species we can find in the Pantanal, many of them are also on the endangered animals list.

Fish: A water-rich biome is also recognized for the diversity of fish in its rivers such as piranha, pacu, cachara, curimbatá, guinea fowl, jaú and dorado.

Among several plant species, we can mention plants such as Cuiabá and Taquari.

Geography (soil, rivers, relief, climate)

The climate of the Pantanal is mostly tropical marked by the large rainfall (rainfall), has a hot and rainy summer and a cold and dry winter.

In the rainy season, in the summer season, the Pantanal is without many options to travel by rail, because almost all the territory is flooded, but in the dry season with winter, the rivers dry up and the clay remains and its characteristic swampy.


Deforestation in recent centuries has already reduced the native territory of the Pantanal by about 18%. One of the main factors of this phenomenon is its own characteristic of having a territory that concentrates a lot of agricultural activity, causing many farmers and producers to reduce the biome for the expansion of the agricultural and cattle raising fields. In this way, many natural resources were being decimated.

Importance of conservation

It is important to maintain the conservation of the Pantanal because it is a biome rich in species diversity, because it has one of the most important natural parks in the world and also for the preservation of its important rivers.

Therefore, much is said about creating centers for the preservation of this ecosystem, and a conscious economy, where agriculture and livestock are not so harmful to the Pantanal ecosystem. Deforestation is very worrying for the entities, as there is a possibility of disappearance in the near future, if there is not a significant change in ecological awareness in our country.


- Although the Pantanal is the largest flooded region in the world, it is the smallest biome in Brazil (in territorial extension).

- Did you know that the Pantanal was once the scene of playwrights that have been very successful for generations ?! They were important for the dissemination of this region and to make Brazilians better know this ecosystem.