Information

32.2G: Fruit and Seed Dispersal - Biology

32.2G: Fruit and Seed Dispersal - Biology


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Some fruits can disperse seeds on their own, while others require assistance from wind, water, or animals.

Learning Objectives

  • Summarize the ways in which fruits and seeds may be dispersed

Key Points

  • The means by which seeds are dispersed depend on a seed’s structure, composition, and size.
  • Seeds dispersed by water are found in light and buoyant fruits, while those dispersed by wind may have specialized wing-like appendages.
  • Animals can disperse seeds by excreting or burying them; other fruits have structures, such as hooks, that attach themselves to animals’ fur.
  • Humans also play a role as dispersers by moving fruit to new places and discarding the inedible portions containing the seeds.
  • Some seeds have the ability to remain dormant and germinate when favorable conditions arise.

Key Terms

  • seed dormancy: a seed with the ability to delay germination and propagation of the species until suitable conditions are found
  • dispersal: the movement of a few members of a species to a new geographical area, resulting in differentiation of the original group into new varieties or species

Fruit and Seed Dispersal

In addition to protecting the embryo, the fruit plays an important role in seed dispersal. Seeds contained within fruits need to be dispersed far from the mother plant so that they may find favorable and less-competitive conditions in which to germinate and grow.

Some fruits have built-in mechanisms that allow them to disperse by themselves, whereas others require the help of agents such as wind, water, and animals. Modifications in seed structure, composition, and size aid in dispersal. Wind-dispersed fruit are lightweight and may have wing-like appendages that allow them to be carried by the wind. Some have a parachute-like structure to keep them afloat. Some fruits, such as the dandelion, have hairy, weightless structures that are suited to dispersal by wind.

Seeds dispersed by water are contained in light and buoyant fruit, giving them the ability to float. Coconuts are well known for their ability to float on water to reach land where they can germinate. Similarly, willow and silver birches produce lightweight fruit that can float on water.

Animals and birds eat fruits; seeds that are not digested are excreted in their droppings some distance away. Some animals, such as squirrels, bury seed-containing fruits for later use; if the squirrel does not find its stash of fruit, and if conditions are favorable, the seeds germinate. Some fruits have hooks or sticky structures that stick to an animal’s coat and are then transported to another place. Humans also play a major role in dispersing seeds when they carry fruits to new places, throwing away the inedible part that contains the seeds.

All of the above mechanisms allow for seeds to be dispersed through space, much as an animal’s offspring can move to a new location. Seed dormancy allows plants to disperse their progeny through time: something animals cannot do. Dormant seeds can wait months, years, or even decades for the proper conditions for germination and propagation of the species.


Dispersal of Fruits and Seeds (With Diagram)

Some fruits rind seeds are so small and light that they may be easily carried by wind. Many of them develop crowns of hairy outgrowths and winged ex­pansions often acting like parachutes, which help them in distribution. Hairy outgrowths are present on the seeds of cotton, Calotropis (B. Akanda), Nerium (B. Karabi).

Many small fruits of sunflower family have modified hairy sepals. Persistent hairy styles are found in Naravelia (B. Chagalbati). Winged expansions on the seeds are common in Moringa (B. Sajina), mahogany Fruits of Hiplage. (B. Madhabilata). Dipterocarpus (B. Garjan) have winged outgrowths for the same purpose.

Dispersal by Animals:

Many fruits and seeds are provided with spiny projections or sticky glands to adhere to the animal bodies, and are thus scattered. Andropogon (B. Chore Kanta), Achyranthes (B. Apang) have stiff hairs on the pericarp curved hooks and barbs are present in Martynia (B. Bagnak. Fig. 114) Xanthium (B. Okra), Plumbago (B. Chita) have glands by which they stick to the animal bodies.

Fleshy fruits like tomato, figs, develop beautiful colours to attract animals like birds, squirrels and bats. The small seeds are carried by those animals from place to place. Some of the fruits are eaten up by animals and seeds remain uninjured even when they pass through their alimentary canals. The excreta of the animals rather forms a more congenial soil for the germination of the seeds.

That explains the occurrence of the seedlings on the roof-tops and cornices of big buildings. Ants, mice and other rodents, store small fruits and thus become responsible for their dispersal.

Even human beings are instrumental in the dispersal of many seeds and fruits of economic interest and ornamental value. Plants like water hyacinth, papaw, pine-apple which grow abundantly all over India today have come from foreign countries through human agency.

Dispersal by Explosive Mechanism:

Certain fruits burst with a bit of force to scatter the seeds away from the mother plant. Familiar examples are Balsam (B. Dopati), Oxalis (B. Amrul), castor. Fruits of Rvellia (B. Chatpati), Andrographis (B. Kalomegh), burst sud­denly when they come into contact with moisture. Legumes of Clitoria (B. Aparajita), dehisce by both the sutures and the two halves twist just to scatter the seeds.

Dispersal by Water:

Aquatic plants and plants growing on river banks and sea-shore have fruits and seeds which are dispersed through water. They have usually fibrous tissue for floating on water surface, and protective devices so that the embryo may not be damaged.

Fruits of cocoanut, Nipa (B. Golpata) are common examples. Lotus fruits remain embedded in the spongy thalamus. The seeds of water-lily contain air-spaces in the testa for ready dispersal by water.


Access options

Buy single article

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.


  • Structure of a fruit
  • Types of fruits
  • Dispersal of fruits and seeds
  • Features that aids methods of dispersal

Structure of a fruit

The fruit is a matured fertilized ovary of a flower containing one or more seeds. Contrary to this, some plants do not undergo fertilization for the formation of their fruit. Such fruits are called parthenocarpic fruits e.g. banana and pineapple. Such fruits are seedless.

A typical fruit has the following parts

  1. The fruit wall called pericarp which is made up of three layers from the inside to the outside (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp).
  2. The seed or seeds.
  3. The fruit stalk-the point of attraction between the fruit to the plant.

Types of fruits

Fruits are classified based on their origin or structure. Common ways of classifying fruits are

  1. True and false fruits
  2. Simple, aggregate and composite fruits
  3. Fleshy and dry fruits
  4. Dehiscent and indehiscent fruits
True and false fruit:

A true fruit develops from a fertilized ovary and it contains a pericarp and seed(s) e. g. mango, cowpea while a false fruit develops from the ovary and other floral parts e. g. apple, cashew.

Simple, aggregate and composite fruits:

A simple fruit develops from a single flower with a single ovary e. g. cowpea, maize. An aggregate fruit develops from a single flower with several ovaries (each ovary develops into a fruitlet to form a cluster). The fruits have a common fruit stalk e. g. custard apple, strawberry. A composite fruit develops from an inflorescence e. g. fig, breadfruit.

Fleshy and dry fruits:

A fleshy fruit is a fruit that has the whole pericarp or at least one of the pericarp thick, soft and succulent is fleshy. There are six types of fleshy fruits:

  1. Drupe: A true, simple fruit with a thin epicarp, fleshy or fibrous mesocarp and a hard and woody endocarp which encloses the seed(s) e. g. mango, coconut, oil palm fruits.
  2. Berry: A true, simple fruit with a thin epicarp and succulent, edible mesocarp and endocarp e. g. tomatoes, guava etc.
  3. Hesperidium: A special type of berry in which the epicarp and mesocarp are fused together and the endocarp forms distinct chambers filled with succulent hairs e. g. oranges, lemon, grapes etc.
  4. Pome: A simple, false fruit in which the fleshy edible part is derived from the receptacle and the core enclosing the seeds from the ovary e. g. apple and pear
  5. Sorosis: A composite, false fruit formed from a dense inflorescence e. g. breadfruit, pineapple
  6. Syconium: A composite false fruit that develops from a cup-like inflorescence enclosing numerous tiny male and female flowers e. g. fig.

Dry fruit is a type of fruit in which the pericarp becomes dry, hard, woody or fibrous when the fruit ripens. Dry fruits can be grouped into dehiscent or indehiscent fruits

Dehiscent fruits and indehiscent fruits:

Dehiscent fruits split open to release the seeds when ripe. Four main types are

  1. Legumes: The pericarp split open longitudinally along both side to release the seeds e. g. cowpea. Flamboyant etc.
  2. Follicle: The pericarp split open longitudinally on one side only to release the seeds e. g. silk cotton, kola
  3. Capsule: The pericarp slit along many sides to release the seeds e. g. Okro, cotton, etc.
  4. Schizocarp: Breaks up into units enclosing one seed each e. g. desmodium, cassia etc.

Indehiscent fruits fall to the ground when ripe, eventually decayed to release the seeds. Five main types are

  1. Achene e.g. clematis
  2. Cypsela e.g. Tridax, sunflower, marigold
  3. Caryopsis e.g. maize, rice
  4. Nut e.g. cashew nut
  5. Samara e.g. combretum
  1. Differentiate between a) true fruits and false fruits b) simple, aggregate and composite fruits
  2. Mention five types of dry dehiscent fruits with one example each

Dispersal of seeds and fruits

This is the transfer of the seed or fruit from the parent plant to other places where such seed may germinate. The essence of dispersal includes the following:

  1. To avoid undue competition for nutrients, light space and water
  2. To prevent overcrowding of plants
  3. To prevent the spread of disease
  4. To encourage colonization of new area for such plants
Agents of dispersal

These are how seeds and fruits are removed from parents to other places. These agents include:

Features that aids methods of dispersal
  1. Wind: (i) Fruits or seeds are light. (ii) Fruits or seeds may have floss, tuff or pappus e. g. tridax, cotton, combretum etc.
  2. Water: (i) Light fruits or seeds that can float in water (ii) Waterproof epicarp (iii) Fibrous mesocarp that can trap air to keep it afloat e. g. coconut
  3. Animals and man: (i) The fruits or seeds may have hooks or hairs to attach to the animal skin (ii) The fruits are edible and the seeds indigestible e. g. pepper, desmodium
  4. Explosive mechanism: (i) Presence of one or more lines of fission or weakness e. g. cowpea, flamboyant, Okro etc.
  1. Mention five importance of fruits and seeds dispersal
  2. State two features each that aids wind and water dispersal
General evaluation
  1. What is a fruit?
  2. Describe the structure of a fruit
  3. Differentiate between a simple, aggregate and a false fruit
  4. Differentiate between a true and a false fruit
  5. Classify fruits into dehiscent and indehiscent fruit giving one example in each case
  6. Give two features each of fruits dispersed by water, wind and animals
  7. Differentiate between a drupe and a berry

Weekend assignment

  1. A fruit that develops from the ovary and other floral parts is called a __________ fruit A. true B. aggregate C. false D. simple
  2. A fruit that develops from an inflorescence is known as a _____________ fruit A. aggregate B. simple C. composite D. true
  3. Which of these is not a class of dry dehiscent fruits A. legumes B. follicle C. capsule D. cypsela
  4. The following except one belong to the same class of fleshy fruits A. coconut B. apple C. oil palm fruit D. mango
  5. The following are dispersed by explosive mechanism except for _______ A.tridax B. cowpea C. flamboyant D. Okro
  1. Differentiate between a fruit and a seed
  2. With the aid of a labelled diagram, differentiate between a drupe and a berry.

In our next class, we will be talking about Variation in Population (Morphological, Physiological, Application). We hope you enjoyed the class.

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.


Fruit and Seed Dispersal

The fruit has a single purpose: seed dispersal. Seeds contained within fruits need to be dispersed far from the mother plant, so they may find favorable and less competitive conditions in which to germinate and grow.

Some fruit have built-in mechanisms so they can disperse by themselves, whereas others require the help of agents like wind, water, and animals (see the figures below). Modifications in seed structure, composition, and size help in dispersal. Wind-dispersed fruit are lightweight and may have wing-like appendages that allow them to be carried by the wind. Some have a parachute-like structure to keep them afloat. Some fruits—for example, the dandelion—have hairy, weightless structures that are suited to dispersal by wind.

Seeds dispersed by water are contained in light and buoyant fruit, giving them the ability to float. Coconuts are well known for their ability to float on water to reach land where they can germinate. Similarly, willow and silver birches produce lightweight fruit that can float on water.

Animals and birds eat fruits, and the seeds that are not digested are excreted in their droppings some distance away. Some animals, like squirrels, bury seed-containing fruits for later use if the squirrel does not find its stash of fruit, and if conditions are favorable, the seeds germinate. Some fruits, like the cocklebur, have hooks or sticky structures that stick to an animal’s coat and are then transported to another place. Humans also play a big role in dispersing seeds when they carry fruits to new places and throw away the inedible part that contains the seeds.

All of the above mechanisms allow for seeds to be dispersed through space, much like an animal’s offspring can move to a new location. Seed dormancy, which was described earlier, allows plants to disperse their progeny through time: something animals cannot do. Dormant seeds can wait months, years, or even decades for the proper conditions for germination and propagation of the species.

Fruits and seeds are dispersed by various means. Dandelion seeds are dispersed by wind (credit: modification of work by “Rosendahl”/Flickr)

Fruits and seeds are dispersed by various means. The coconut seed is dispersed by water. (credit: modification of work by Shine Oa)

Fruits and seeds are dispersed by various means. The acorn is dispersed by animals that cache and then forget it. (credit: modification of work by Paolo Neo)


Dispersal of Seeds

The dispersal of seeds as well as fruits takes place by wind, water and animals. Sometimes there may be some specialized mechanism of spore dispersal. Now we are going to have a brief description about them:

DISPERSAL BY WIND

The dispersal of seeds by the wind takes place in the following way:

Minute seeds

The orchids and grasses seeds are minute in size and weigh around 0.004 g, hence they can easily be dispersed by wind.

Winged seeds

The seeds are provided with wing like projections, which are easily carried by wind. e.g. Jacaranda, Moringa, Oroxylum etc. Similarly the fruits of Acer, Hiptage, Terminalia, Shorea also have wing like projections. So dispersal of seeds are easily made by those wings.

Parachute mechanism

The single seeded fruits of members of family Asteraceae hold hair like persistant sepals called pappus. They carry the seed to great distance in the form of a parachute, e.g. Taraxacum.

Censer mechanism

In these plants the fruits are represented by capsule, e.g. Antirrhinum, Aristolochia, Argemone Mexicana. This capsule ruptures on maturity, but the seeds do not come out. When the fruit is shaken forcefully with the help of wind, the seeds come out in small aggregates and this mechanism is called censer mechanism.

Rolling mechanism

In certain weed plants like Amaranthus and Chenopodium, the entire plant gets dried up and due to the force of the wind rolls over the ground in the form of tumble weeds and thus the dispersal of seeds and fruits are made.

Hairs

The hairs are specialized epidermal trichomes arising from the seed coat, which carry the seed through longer distances. . In cotton, the hairs surround the entire seed surface, in Asclepias, it remains as a tuft of hairs on one end of the seed.

Persistent Style

In plants like Clematis and Naravelia, the style remains, persistent, it is hairy and helps in dispersal of seeds.

Balloon like appendages

In certain plants, the floral parts surrounding the ovary become swollen. In Cardiospermum, the capsular fruit becomes swollen. In Tilia americana, the fruit is attached to a thin leafy bract, which keeps the fruit floating in air.

DISPERSAL OF SEEDS BY WATER

This method of dispersal of seeds is observed in aquatic plants and they may be of the following types:

Floating fruit

The fibrous mesocarp of coconut and double coconut act as a layer impermeable to water, which helps the fruit to float in water.

Spongy thalamus

The seeds of Nelumbo are rooted in the spongy thalamus, which floats in water and helps in the dispersal of seed over long distance.

Air-filled aril

The plants like water-lily contain seeds with air-filled aril. These seeds are small and light and can float in water or even dispersal of seeds may be done by rain water.

DISPERSAL OF SEEDS BY ANIMALS

The dispersal of seeds by animals are brought about by specialized devices like hooked fruits and seeds, sticky fruits and edible fruits.

Hooked fruit and seed

Some fruits and seeds have hook-like projections, bristles, hairs, spines, which helps them to get attached to the animal skin, hoofs or body parts and after being dispersed, they are dropped off. They include Bidens, Xanthium, Martynia, Aristida etc.

Sticky fruits and seeds

The plants like Cleome, Boerhavea etc. produce sticky fruits or their seeds are surrounded by a sticky pulp. These fruits adhere to the beaks of birds or hoofs of animals and after being transported for some distance, and then germinate at a different place.

Edible fruits

These edible fruits are fleshy and juicy in nature. They pass through the intestine of birds and animals. These plants include oak, chestnut etc.

Transfer by human agency

Human agency can also be liable for the transfer of certain crops from one country to other.

SPECIAL TYPE DISPERSAL OF SEEDS

Sometimes the fruits perform specialized dispersal methods, such as the explosive mechanism. In balsam and Geranium, the fruit bursts open with a great force and seeds are dispersed at a greater distance. In Barleria, the fruit bursts open into two valves and seed are projected with the help of a hook like structure called jaculator. It opens with a jerk and the seed is dispersed at a great speed.


Importance of Dispersal of Fruits and Seeds

In addition to protecting the embryo, the fruit plays an important role in seed dispersal. Without favorable conditions, the seed does not germinate. Again without a favorable environment, no seedling can grow big. If all the fruits or seeds of a plant fall directly under the mother tree, then many of them will fail to germinate, for want of space, water, light, and air, many of the germinated ones may die because of the shade of the plants. The rest survivors will gradually perish. So for maintaining the existence and increasing of a generation of plants in the favourable environment dispersal of fruits and seeds is essential. When dispersed to new environments, plants have the opportunity to adapt to the location’s conditions. These adaptations will also ensure the prolonged survival of the plant on Earth.

Some fruits are carried from one place to another by human beings for their own interest e.g. Litchi, Mango, Jackfruit, etc. In some plants fruits and seeds remains just under the tree. Again in some plants fruits and seeds are taken away from the mother plant by various agents and are distributed to distant areas. This process of distribution of fruits and seeds to a distant area from its mother plant by several means is called dispersal of fruits and seeds.

Importance of Fruit and Seed Dispersal – Seed dispersion is the most important phenomenon that occurs with the help of different agents such as wind, water, and animals. It ensures the survival of the plant species should an environment become uninhabitable due to construction, pollution, alien species, etc.


Azteca and Cecropia

Plants of the genus Cecropia live in tropical rain forests of Central and South America and they are very big fighters. The strategy that allow them to grow quickly and capture sunlight, avoiding competition with other plants, resides in the strong relationship they have with Azteca ants. Plants provide nests to the ants, since their stems are normally hollow and with separations, allowing ants to inhabit inside. Furthermore, these plants also produce Müllerian bodies, which are small but very nutritive substances rich in glycogen that ants can eat. In return, the ants protect Cecropia from vines and lianas, allowing them to success as a pioneer plants.

Ant Plants: CecropiaAzteca Symbiosis (www.youtube.com)


Dispersal of seeds is important for the continued survival of a plant species. If plants grow too closely together, they compete for light, water, and nutrients. Seed dispersal allows offspring to be spread over a wide area and decreases the competition between offspring.

Seeds are dispersed in several different ways. In flowering plants like apple trees, one or more seeds are housed within a fruit. The fruit is the portion of the apple that we eat. Sweet fruit, like apples, are eaten by animals that disperse the undigested seeds. Some fruits can be carried by water, like the coconut. Burdock fruits have hooks that attach to an animal's furry coat. Dandelion fruits are suspended from feathery "parachutes" that are carried on the wind (Figure 1). The fruit of maple and ash trees have wings that let them float on air.


Figure 1. Dandelion seeds being dispersed by the wind (Wikimedia Commons user Alex Valavanis, 2011).

In this experiment, you will investigate how the size and shape of seeds influence their ability to be dispersed by wind. You will design your own seeds and measure two important qualities that enhance their ability to disperse in the wind: distance traveled and time aloft.

Adapted from "Sailing Seeds: An Experiment in Wind Dispersal," by Steven K. Rice, used with permission.


Seminal Science: How Many Seeds Do Different Fruits Produce?

Introduction
Do you like your strawberry jelly with or without the seeds? Are you glad to have a seed-free watermelon, or do you enjoy spitting the seeds into the garden? You might not like finding seeds in your fruit, but fruit is a plant's tool for dispersing seeds to create offspring. In this activity you will investigate how many seeds can be dispersed for each type of fruit. Based on the number of seeds they produce, how productive do you think some of your favorite fruits are?

Background
Many plants grow fruit to enclose and protect their seeds, which need to spread out to grow new plants. Animals love to eat sweet, juicy fruit. This approach would seem like a poor way for plants to protect their seeds, so why would making fruit that is tasty be beneficial? When an animal eats fruit the fleshy part is digested. The seeds, however, pass without harm through the digestive system and are spread by the animal when it excretes (poops). In this way, they are deposited farther from the original plant (along with a little bit of fresh fertilizer) and can grow into a new plant. This is called seed dispersal, and it is just one strategy that plants use to spread seeds over a wide area and make more plants.

You might think that all fruit-bearing plants would pack as many seeds as possible into each fruit to maximize the number of new plants that will grow. But, in fact, different plants have different strategies for seed production and dispersal. Some fruits produce many, many seeds to make sure that at least some will grow, even if most fail. Other fruits put all of their resources into producing and protecting one very large seed.

Materials
&bull Different types of fruits: Try to include a pepper, tomato and apple as well as a squash or cucumber (yes, all of these are technically considered the "fruits" of their plants)
&bull Knife
&bull Cutting board
&bull Paper towels

Preparation
&bull Go to the grocery store and pick out different kinds of fruit. Don't just stick to traditional fruits, try some new ones as well. Some produce you might think are vegetables are really fruit! Try to include at least one pepper, tomato and apple, along with a squash or cucumber. Avoid seedless varieties.
&bull Tip: Bananas do have seeds, but they are very tiny, appearing as little black spots in the center of a banana slice. You can try to count them, but it is not recommended!
&bull Tip: If you dissect a pepper, be sure to wash your hands before you touch your eyes after handling the seeds. Pepper seeds can be spicy and cause a burning sensation! Use a mild pepper variety, such as a bell pepper, if you are very sensitive.
&bull You may need an adult to help you when cutting the fruit open.

Procedure
&bull Begin to dissect your first fruit, removing the seeds and placing them on a paper towel. In the fruit, are the seeds arranged in a certain pattern?
&bull When you are done removing the seeds, count the number of seeds on the paper towel. How many seeds were in the fruit?
&bull Tip: If you are dissecting a cucumber or squash, instead of removing the seeds you can try cutting the fruit lengthwise, counting the rows of seeds, and then slicing the fruit the other way to determine how many seeds are in one row. Multiply these two numbers together to get a good approximation of the total number of seeds.
&bull One at a time, continue to dissect each fruit, place the seeds on a paper towel, then count them. Be sure to keep the seeds from different fruits separated.
&bull How many seeds are in each fruit? Which held the most seeds? The least? Did similar types of fruit produce similar numbers of seeds?
&bull How do seeds from different types of fruit look similar or different? In each fruit, were there similar patterns in which the seeds were arranged?
&bull Extra: Try this activity again but use multiple fruit of each type, such as multiple peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers and squash. Does the same type of fruit always hold a similar number of seeds, or does the amount vary a lot?
&bull Extra: Is fruit size related to seed quantity? Repeat this activity but this time use a ruler to measure each fruit before you count their seeds to see if larger fruits tend to produce more seeds than smaller ones. (You can also use a scale to weigh each fruit as an alternative way to measure fruit size.) Do larger fruits make more seeds?
&bull Extra: Are seedless fruit varieties really seedless? Dissect several different varieties of seedless fruits and look for seeds. Are "seedless" fruit varieties completely seedless, or simply have fewer seeds than normal? What is the decreased seed productivity of seedless varieties compared with normal varieties on a fruit-to-fruit comparison basis?

Observations and results
Did some types of fruit clearly have more seeds than others? Did the cucumbers, squash, tomato and pepper have a lot of seeds, easily over 100 each? Did the apple only have a few seeds, no more than 10?

Fruits are divided into three general groups, with the "simple fruits" group making up the majority we encounter. They're formed from one ovary in one of the plant's flowers. As the ovary turns into fruit, different ovary parts become different fruit parts when fertilized, small structures called ovules become the fruit's seeds&mdashand more fertilized ovules means more seeds! The other two fruit groups are more complex. In "aggregate fruit"&mdashsuch as raspberries&mdashmultiple ovaries fuse on a single flower. In the third group, called "multiple fruit," many ovaries and flowers unite. A pineapple is a good example of a "multiple fruit."

Cucumbers, melons and squash are simple fruits (they are part of a fruit type called pepo, which are berries) with a firm rind and softer, watery interior. And, as you probably saw, these fruits make many seeds! A zucchini or cucumber can easily have a couple hundred neatly patterned seeds.

Tomatoes, grapes, kiwifruit and peppers are also simple fruits (technically true berries) with fleshier walls and usually very fluid insides&mdashthink of how watery a ripe tomato is! Some, like tomatoes and peppers, can have a couple hundred seeds, whereas others, like kiwifruit, can have several hundred! Citrus fruits are berries (a type called hesperidium), too, with leathery rinds and usually only a few seeds.

Similarly, apples and pears also only have a few seeds (10 at most) but are not berries&mdashthey belong to a different fruit type, known as pomes, which have some fruit flesh not made from the flower's ovary, but rather from plant tissue near the ovary, which is the same for strawberries.

Cleanup
Dispose of the seeds from your fruit or, if you're motivated and curious, look into how you could grow plants from your seeds. You can eat the rest of the fruit or save it for a tasty, healthy snack later!

This activity brought to you in partnership with Science Buddies



Comments:

  1. Malakasa

    Thanks, left to read.

  2. Gilles

    Thanks. Exactly what is needed ))

  3. Alpha

    I think, that you commit an error. I can prove it. Write to me in PM, we will talk.

  4. Abdul-Muta'al

    Yes, in due time to answer, it is important

  5. Mautilar

    In my opinion this was already discussed



Write a message