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Atom or Cell? Which is the basic unit of life?

Atom or Cell? Which is the basic unit of life?


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As it is said that everything in this universe is made up of atom and molecules and atoms is called the building block of matter. But then why the cell is called the basic unit of life, why not atoms?


I think you have a misunderstanding of the term unit as used in unit of life. Unit here refers to the smallest building block that is somewhat complete and operational in the relevant context (here: life).

Cells are called the units of life because all life we know is composed of cells. (There are some borderline cases like viruses, but even those rather resemble a cell than an atom.) On the other hand, if you cut a cell in half, it is certainly not operational or alive anymore.

You wouldn't call atoms units of currency, even though all coins and bank notes are made up of atoms (ignoring digital currency for the sake of the analogue).


Biology

Remember the first subject we reviwed together. I told you
Living things are made of cells and that t hese cells were the basic building blocks of life .

But how small really are they? how much a micrsocpe is enhancing their size? Remember I told you to think of a sandcastle. If you see it from the distance it will look like a smooth building. But as you get closer you begin to see is made of millions of tiny sand grains.

Let´s see how small cells really are:

Light microscopes magnify 1500 times an object. Nowadays we have electron micorscopes which may magnify 500,000 times the actuak size if an object.

Nucleus : The nucleus controls the cell activity.

Now watch this video on cell structure to understand the different functions of each oragnelle.

cell structure

Comparition bwteween Animal and Plant Cells

  • Once you had learned that the cell is the smallest unit of life
  • let´s focus on multicellular organisms.

  • Organisms are like machines, some have just one part like bacterias and others have many parts, like us: we have got trillions of cells
  • Lager size
  • Long life: life span is not limited to a single cell
  • Specialization: each type of cell has a particular job.

1 comentario:


Lesson Video

Figure 1 (left) and 2 (right). Left: All organisms are made of cells. Right: Cells are defined as the smallest unit of life and life is defined as being built from cells. These definitions don’t really define what cells are.
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Figure 3 (left) and 4 (right). Left: Cells are too small to see with our eyes. Although cells vary in size, they are on average about 1/3 the width of a human hair. Right: We need microscopes to see cells.
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From Organelles to Biospheres

Macromolecules can form aggregates within a cell that are surrounded by membranes these are called organelles. Organelles are small structures that exist within cells. Examples of these include: mitochondria and chloroplasts, which carry out indispensable functions. Mitochondria produce energy to power the cell while chloroplasts enable green plants to utilize the energy in sunlight to make sugars. All living things are made of cells, and the cell itself is the smallest fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms. (This requirement is why viruses are not considered living: they are not made of cells. To make new viruses, they have to invade and hijack the reproductive mechanism of a living cell only then can they obtain the materials they need to reproduce. ) Some organisms consist of a single cell and others are multicellular. Cells are classified as prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotes are single-celled or colonial organisms that do not have membrane-bound nuclei in contrast, the cells of eukaryotes do have membrane-bound organelles and a membrane-bound nucleus.

In larger organisms, cells combine to make tissues, which are groups of similar cells carrying out similar or related functions. Organs are collections of tissues grouped together performing a common function. Organs are present not only in animals but also in plants. An organ system is a higher level of organization that consists of functionally related organs. Mammals have many organ systems. For instance, the circulatory system transports blood through the body and to and from the lungs it includes organs such as the heart and blood vessels. Furthermore, organisms are individual living entities. For example, each tree in a forest is an organism. Single-celled prokaryotes and single-celled eukaryotes are also considered organisms and are typically referred to as microorganisms.

All the individuals of a species living within a specific area are collectively called a population. For example, a forest may include many pine trees. All of these pine trees represent the population of pine trees in this forest. Different populations may live in the same specific area. For example, the forest with the pine trees includes populations of flowering plants and also insects and microbial populations. A community is the sum of populations inhabiting a particular area. For instance, all of the trees, flowers, insects, and other populations in a forest form the forest&rsquos community. The forest itself is an ecosystem. An ecosystem consists of all the living things in a particular area together with the abiotic, non-living parts of that environment such as nitrogen in the soil or rain water. At the highest level of organization, the biosphere is the collection of all ecosystems, and it represents the zones of life on earth. It includes land, water, and even the atmosphere to a certain extent. Taken together, all of these levels comprise the biological levels of organization, which range from organelles to the biosphere.

Figure (PageIndex<1>): Biological Levels of Organization: The biological levels of organization of living things follow a hierarchy, such as the one shown. From a single organelle to the entire biosphere, living organisms are part of a highly structured hierarchy.


Unit 3: The Cellular Basis of Life

  • Contributed by John W. Kimball
  • Professor (retired) at Tufts University & Harvard
  • 3.1: Animal Cells The idealized animal cell contains many structures.
  • 3.2: Cell Membranes One universal feature of all cells is an outer limiting membrane called the plasma membrane. In addition, all eukaryotic cells contain elaborate systems of internal membranes which set up various membrane-enclosed compartments within the cell. Cell membranes are built from lipids and proteins.
  • 3.3: The Nucleus The nucleus is the hallmark of eukaryotic cells the very term eukaryotic means having a "true nucleus".
  • 3.4: Ribosomes Ribosomes are the protein-synthesizing machines of the cell. They translate the information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) into a polypeptide.
  • 3.5: Endoplasmic Reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a system of membrane-enclosed sacs and tubules in the cell. Their lumens are probably all interconnected, and their membranes are continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. All the materials within the system are separated from the cytosol by a membrane.
  • 3.6: Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus is a cell structure mainly devoted to processing the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Some of these will eventually end up as integral membrane proteins embedded in the plasma membrane. Other proteins moving through the Golgi will end up in lysosomes or be secreted by exocytosis (e.g., digestive enzymes).
  • 3.7: Centrosomes and Centrioles Centrioles are built from a cylindrical array of 9 microtubules, each of which has attached to it 2 partial microtubules. Centrioles are a key feature of eukaryotic cells and presumably arose with the first eukaryotes.
  • 3.8: Lysosomes and Peroxisomes Lysosomes are roughly spherical bodies enclosed by a single membrane. They are manufactured by the Golgi apparatus and contain over 50 different kinds of hydrolytic enzymes including proteases, lipases, nucleases, and polysaccharidases. The pH within the lysosome is about pH 5, substantially less than that of the cytosol (

Thumbnail: A diagram of a typical prokaryotic cell. (Public Domain LadyofHats).


What distinguishes a living organism from an inanimate object? A living organism conducts self-sustaining biological processes. A cell is the smallest and most basic form of life.

The cell theory incorporates three principles:

Cells are the most basic building units of life. All living things are composed of cells. New cells are made from preexisting cells, which divide in two. Who you are has been determined because of two cells that came together inside your mother&rsquos womb. The two cells containing all of your genetic information (DNA) united to begin making new life. Cells divided and differentiated into other cells with specific roles that led to the formation of the body&rsquos numerous body organs, systems, blood, blood vessels, bone, tissue, and skin. As an adult, you are made up of trillions of cells. Each of your individual cells is a compact and efficient form of life&mdashself-sufficient, yet interdependent upon the other cells within your body to supply its needs.

Independent single-celled organisms must conduct all the basic processes of life. The single-celled organism must take in nutrients (energy capture), excrete wastes, detect and respond to its environment, move, breathe, grow, and reproduce. Even a one-celled organism must be organized to perform these essential processes. All cells are organized from the atomic level to all its larger forms. Oxygen and hydrogen atoms combine to make the molecule water ((ce)). Molecules bond together to make bigger macromolecules. The carbon atom is often referred to as the backbone of life because it can readily bond with four other elements to form long chains and more complex macromolecules. Four macromolecules&mdashcarbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids&mdashmake up all of the structural and functional units of cells. Although we defined the cell as the &ldquomost basic&rdquo unit of life, it is structurally and functionally complex (Figure (PageIndex)). A cell can be thought of as a mini-organism consisting of tiny organs called organelles. The organelles are structural and functional units constructed from several macromolecules bonded together. A typical animal cell contains the following organelles: the nucleus (which houses the genetic material DNA), mitochondria (which generate energy), ribosomes (which produce protein), the endoplasmic reticulum (which is a packaging and transport facility), and the golgi apparatus (which distributes macromolecules). In addition, animal cells contain little digestive pouches, called lysosomes and peroxisomes, which break down macromolecules and destroy foreign invaders. All of the organelles are anchored in the cell&rsquos cytoplasm via a cytoskeleton. The cell&rsquos organelles are isolated from the surrounding environment by a plasma membrane. Figure (PageIndex): The Cell Structure. The cell is structurally and functionally complex. What is a cell?

A cell is the basic unit of life as we know it. It is the smallest unit capable of independent reproduction. Robert Hooke suggested the name ‘cell’ in 1665, from the Latin cella meaning storeroom or chamber, after using a very early microscope to look at a piece of cork.

It is also said that he thought that the rectangular chambers looked like the cells in some monasteries.

Physically cells always have a boundary membrane, a little like a polythene bag encloses contents within it. Inside the space limited by the membrane there is an remarkable chemical processing unit.

From the point of view of cell structure biologists divide organisms into two groups, the bacteria (the prokaryotes), and all other animals and plants (the eucaryotes).

In bacteria chemical reactions take place almost anywhere within the cell. Bacteria contain genetic information in the form of DNA but it is not confined within a sac called a nucleus.

The main part of this image shows a root tip meristem cell from pea root. The black (osmium) staining shows the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and vacuoles.

(courtesy of Chris Hawes, The Research School of Biology & Molecular Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK)

In higher animals and plants specific functions are carried out by specialised structures. Collectively these are called organelles and include structures that contain the construction and operating plans of the cell (the nucleus), protein manufacturing areas (ribosomes), energy conversion units (mitochondria) and protein modifying and fat production areas (endoplasmic reticulum).

Additionally in plants there are light energy absorbers and converters (chloroplasts). Chloroplasts are almost unique in their capacity to convert sunlight energy into carbohydrate.

Cells also contain an elaborate transport network of filaments and fibres (the cytoskeleton) and a liquid (cytosol).

On the outer surface of a cell there can be a sticky material called extracellular matrix. This is proving to be very important to the cells it surrounds. Some animal cells produce bone and cartilage. Plant and animal cells have many features in common but plant cells also have a distinct rigid cell wall. Many plant cells also have large fluid filled sacs called vacuoles and some contain types of thickening that give plants rigidity and wood its unique strength.

Such is the efficiency of the cell that the main simple basic structure and function has been conserved during evolution and dispersal since cells started to form about 3.5 billion years ago.

The capacity and productivity of cells is truly amazing. In bacteria for example all the instructions come from a single closed loop of DNA. Each cell can divide in 20 minutes and given suitable conditions can keep dividing to produce 5 billion cells in eleven hours. Cells of this type produce some 400 different proteins and these are produced by enzyme assisted chemical reactions working at the rate of 100 times a second. This is why diseases such as meningitis and food poisoning can attack a person so quickly.

There is no such thing as a typical cell but most cells have chemical and structural features in common.

This is very important from the point of view of cell and molecular biology. It means that biologists can work on a cell from a mouse and be reasonably certain that the same processes will occur in a similar cell in a lion, a human or a fruit fly. This is possible because all cells are thought to have arisen from a common ancestor.

Many different types of plant and animal cells have evolved. In humans there are about 200 different types but within cells there only about 20 different structures or organelles.

Many cells carry out specialised functions this is what makes them different. The specialisation of cells depends almost always on the exaggeration of properties common to cells. Cells lining the intestine for example have extended cell walls that increase the amount of surface area that is available to absorb food.

Nerve cells can be very long, extending for example in humans from the base of the spine to the foot.

Cells in heart muscle process a lot of energy and this is carried out by the high number of mitochondria found in these cells. At a molecular level however all cells resemble one another.

Cells vary greatly in their relative size although similar cells tend to be of similar size. Unfortunately most cells cannot be seen without a microscope.

The eggs of frogs and birds are large but they are made of a cell and a very large food store linked together. In relative size it has been suggested that the difference between the size of a bacterial cell and the egg of a frog would be the difference between a person and a frog’s egg half a mile in diameter!

Cells are remarkable structures and in addition to facts mentioned already, they are able to communicate with each other receiving and rejecting messages.

SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT:
It is possible to produce a whole new carrot plant from a single cell taken from the root of one carrot. This is cloning. It is relatively easy to do with some plants it is proving difficult in animals. Soon however it might be possible to grow replacement tissues and organs in laboratories. Although cloning of complete humans has been banned it might be possible in the future for your doctor to order perhaps a replacement lung to be grown for you. Do you think this is a reasonable way forward for biology to develop?

How might society react to organ growing? Do you think smoking might increase if smokers though they could obtain replacement lungs later in life?

If lungs were available, in what order would you supply replacement lungs to the following groups: coal miners and quarry workers with years of dust in their lungs, young people suffering from cystic fibrosis, or smokers?

Do you think growing organs in a laboratory is preferable to growing them in an animal for transplanting into a human?


Cells The Units Of Life Worksheet Answers

Cells size ranges from 1 to 100 micrometer cells can replicate independently. C ed urnatics.

5th Life Science Living Systems Science Matters

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Cells the units of life worksheet answers. Some of the worksheets displayed are lesson plans for the animal cell virtual cell work answer key introduction to the cell cell structure exploration activities plant and animal cells reading activity the organization of the human body chapter 3 cellular structure and function work chapter 3 the chemical basis for life lesson 2 organic. Look at the cell diagrams and answer the questions the cell is the basic unit of life and all cells come from other. Metabolism polymerization and replication cannot occur in a dilute aqueous solution because it is unlikely for reactants and enzymes to collide with one another.

A cell is the smallest unit of life in all living things. A cell compartmentalizes molecules needed for life by keeping them close together in higher concentrations. Once you find your worksheet click on pop out icon or print icon to worksheet to print or download.

The cell is the basic building blocks of all living organisms. The structures within the cell are known as organelles which are all of the structures within the cell that carry out specific functions. C ed urnatics.

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Chapter 2 cells the units of life worksheet answers wwwgogololkalcf 3 chapter review worksheet cells. There are many structures within the cell. Different cells have different jobs in living things.

Showing top 8 worksheets in the category cells teh units of life. Quizlet flashcards activities and games help you improve your grades. The concept of cell originated from.

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Cells are important because they are organized structures that help living things carry on the activities of life such as the break down of food movement growth and reproduction. The working units of life. The basic units of life.

Cells contain hereditary information due to presence of nucleus or nucleoid. White blood cells found in humans and many other animals help fight diseases. Worksheet will open in a new window.

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Atom or Cell? Which is the basic unit of life? - Biology

Cells: The Basic Unit of Life

Cell Theory: All known living things are made up of cells. All cells come from preexisting cells by division. The cell is structural and functional unit of all living things.

Cell Structural Overview: The major parts of a cell are the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.

  • The nucleus contains a nucleolus and is separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope.
  • The nucleus contains the cell’s DNA, a type of nucleic acid.
  • The nucleolus is like a “tiny nucleus” inside the actual nucleus. It contains RNA, a type of nucleic acid.
  • The nucleus communicates through holes in the envelope called nuclear pores.
  • The nucleus decides what the cell needs and uses DNA to print out instructions for the rest of the cell to produce that need.

Chromosomes:

  • Hold the cell’s DNA in the nucleus.
  • The nucleus contains genetic information in the form of DNA (the universal genetic code).
  • The DNA does not hang around loosely in the nucleus. The DNA is packaged with proteins and wound up.
  • Recall that the role of nucleic acids is to carry genetic information, which is inherited by an organism’s offspring.
  • These wound up DNAprotein structures are called chromosomes.


Cytoplasmic Organelles: Are compartmentalized structures that perform a specialized function within a cell.

Golgi apparatus: ships packages around the cell.

  • The golgi is made up of flattened, folded sacs.
  • Packages (e.g. containing proteins) are carried to the golgi in vesicles.
  • The golgi receives an incoming vesicle, tags the package, and sends the vesicle to its final destination.
  • Lysosomes contain an environment made to destroy waste.
  • Vesicles carry the waste (bacteria, old organelles, etc.) into the lysosome.
    Once inside, the waste is destroyed and its parts recycled.
  • Smooth ER is NOT attached to the nucleus and DOES NOT have attached ribosomes (thus smooth).
  • Smooth ER synthesizes carbohydrates (sugars) and lipids (fats).

Mitochondria: produce energy to power the cell.

  • The mitochondria convert carbohydrates (sugar) taken from food into ATP.
  • The mitochondria are unique in that it has two protective shells.
  • The ribosome reads the DNA strand instructions to make proteins for the cell to use in its normal activities.
  • The units clasp around a strand of nucleic acid instructions from the nucleus.
    Each ribosome is made of two protein subunits.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum: The two types of ER make different building blocks for the cell.

  • Rough ER is found attached to the outside of the nucleus. It appears rough because of the ribosomes on its surface.
  • Rough ER helps the attached ribosomes in finishing protein synthesis.
  • Plasma Membrane, the cell’s membrane is made of phospholipids, which have carbohydrate heads and lipid tails.
  • Embedded proteins are anchored to the cell membrane.
  • Exterior of the plasma membrane touches water polar heads touch water on the inside of the cell and water on the outside of the cell.
  • Interior Blocks Passage However, water and other molecules cannot pass through to either side because of the nonpolar tails.
  • Provides a stabilized environment, which protects and maintains the cell’s internal environment, separate from the environment outside.
  • Proteins embedded into the membrane send and receive signals to communicate with other cells.

Three types of passive transport are osmosis, diffusion, and facilitated diffusion. Osmosis is the natural movement of water from a high concentration of water to a lower concentration of water. Diffusion is the natural movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. Facilitated Diffusion is the natural movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration with the help of a transporter protein embedded on the cell membrane.

Active transport requires energy to occur. Active transport is “forced” movement of molecules from a lower concentration to a higher concentration. The most common type of active transport is a pump. Pumps are proteins embedded in the cell membrane, which use ATP energy to work.

Different Cell Types: Prokaryote and Eukaryote.

  • Prokaryotic: Bacteria and other microscopic organisms are made up of prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells do not have any complex organelles (not even a nucleus). However, prokaryotes do have ribosomes.
  • Eukaryotic: Two types of eukaryotic cells are plant and animal cells.

The cell contains a nucleus, which contains the genetic material necessary for reproduction. Within the cytoplasm of the cell are the organelles the cell requires to reproduce, energy production, and removal of waste.

Key concepts about how cells obtain and import the necessary nutrients for survival along with the energy requirements of these processes will be presented.

Specific Tutorial Features:

  • Detailed description of the function of each organelle within cells is discussed.
  • The role of the nucleus as a command center will be covered along with the location of the cellular DNA within chromosomes.
  • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts.
  • Examples given throughout to illustrate how the concepts apply.
  • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

The definition of a cell: The smallest unit of an organism that can live independently.
The nucleus of the cell:

  • Nucleus
  • Nucleolus
  • Nuclear envelope
  • Chromsomes
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosome
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Ribosomes
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Provides a stable internal cell
  • Transport across the cell
  • Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
  • Cell Levels of Organization.

See all 24 lessons in Anatomy and Physiology, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets: Teach Yourself Anatomy and Physiology Visually in 24 Hours


The nature and function of cells

A cell is enclosed by a plasma membrane, which forms a selective barrier that allows nutrients to enter and waste products to leave. The interior of the cell is organized into many specialized compartments, or organelles, each surrounded by a separate membrane. One major organelle, the nucleus, contains the genetic information necessary for cell growth and reproduction. Each cell contains only one nucleus, whereas other types of organelles are present in multiple copies in the cellular contents, or cytoplasm. Organelles include mitochondria, which are responsible for the energy transactions necessary for cell survival lysosomes, which digest unwanted materials within the cell and the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, which play important roles in the internal organization of the cell by synthesizing selected molecules and then processing, sorting, and directing them to their proper locations. In addition, plant cells contain chloroplasts, which are responsible for photosynthesis, whereby the energy of sunlight is used to convert molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into carbohydrates. Between all these organelles is the space in the cytoplasm called the cytosol. The cytosol contains an organized framework of fibrous molecules that constitute the cytoskeleton, which gives a cell its shape, enables organelles to move within the cell, and provides a mechanism by which the cell itself can move. The cytosol also contains more than 10,000 different kinds of molecules that are involved in cellular biosynthesis, the process of making large biological molecules from small ones.

Specialized organelles are a characteristic of cells of organisms known as eukaryotes. In contrast, cells of organisms known as prokaryotes do not contain organelles and are generally smaller than eukaryotic cells. However, all cells share strong similarities in biochemical function.


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