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15.9F: Classic Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers - Biology

15.9F: Classic Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers - Biology


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Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of RNA viruses.

Learning Objectives

  • List the types, symptoms and routes of transmission for viral hemorrhagic fevers

Key Points

  • VHFs are caused by viruses of four distinct families: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. They are all RNA viruses covered, or enveloped, in a fatty coating.
  • Viruses associated with most VHFs naturally reside in an animal host or arthropod vector. For the most part, rodents and arthropods are the main reservoirs for viruses causing VHFs.
  • Symptoms include marked fever, fatigue, dizziness, muscle aches, loss of strength, exhaustion, and excessive bleeding under the skin, in internal organs, or from body orifices like the mouth, eyes, or ears.

Key Terms

  • hemorrhagic: of, relating to, or producing excessive loss of blood or blood escape from the circulatory system.

The viral hemorrhagic (or haemorrhagic) fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses that may be caused by five distinct families of RNA viruses: the families Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Rhabdoviridae. All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders and all can progress to high fever, shock and death in many cases. Some of the VHF agents cause relatively mild illnesses, such as the Scandinavian nephropathia epidemica, while others, such as the African Ebola virus, can cause severe, life-threatening disease.

Four families of RNA viruses have been recognized as causing this syndrome:

  • The family Arenaviridae include the viruses responsible for Lassa fever, Lujo virus, Argentine, Bolivian, Brazilian and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fevers.
  • The family Bunyaviridae include the members of the Hantavirus genus that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus from the Nairovirus genus, Garissa virus from the Orthobunyavirus and the Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus from the Phlebovirus genus.
  • The family Filoviridae include Ebola virus and Marburg virus. Ebola has five viral subtypes including Zaire, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Tai Forest (formerly Ivory Coast), and Reston.
  • The family Flaviviridae include dengue, yellow fever, and two viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis group that cause VHF: Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease virus.

Transmission

Transmission to humans depends on the specific virus, but includes:

  • By contact with the urine, feces, saliva, or blood of animal hosts such as rodents, fruit bats, subhuman primates, and duikers (antelope)
  • From mosquito or tick bites
  • Contact with vector-infected livestock
  • Consuming infected bush meat

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of VHFs include fever and bleeding diathesis. Manifestations of VHF often also include flushing of the face and chest, petechiae, frank bleeding, edema, hypotension, and shock. Malaise, myalgias, headache, vomiting, and diarrhea occur frequently. Definitive diagnosis is usually made at a reference laboratory with advanced biocontainment capabilities.

Treatment

For most viral hemorrhagic fevers, there is no effective treatment other than supportive care. The only licensed vaccine available is for yellow fever. Control of rodent populations, insect and other arthropod populations can prevent VHFs.


Examples of virality in the following topics:

Attachment and Entry of Herpes Simplex

  • Herpes simplex virus attaches to a host's cells with viral envelope glycoproteins, which then allows entry of the viral capsid into the host cell.
  • Finally, a stable entry pore is formed through which the viral envelope contents are introduced to the host cell .
  • The genome encodes for 11 different glycoproteins, four of which, gB, gC, gD and gH, are involved in viral attachment.
  • Afterward, gB interaction with the gH/gL complex creates an entry pore for the viral capsid.
  • Following attachment, the viral envelope fuses with the host cell membrane and the viral capsid gains entry into the cell.

Vaccines and Anti-Viral Drugs for Treatment

  • Vaccines and anti-viral drugs can be used to inhibit the virus and reduce symptoms in individuals suffering from viral infections.
  • In some cases, vaccines can be used to treat an active viral infection.
  • (a) Tamiflu inhibits a viral enzyme called neuraminidase (NA) found in the influenza viral envelope.
  • (b) Neuraminidase cleaves the connection between viral hemagglutinin (HA), also found in the viral envelope, and glycoproteins on the host cell surface.
  • Viral contents are released into the cell where viral enzymes convert the single-stranded RNA genome into DNA and incorporate it into the host genome.

Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus

  • On entering the cell, an α-TIF protein joins the viral particle and aids in immediate-early transcription.
  • The virion host shutoff protein (VHS or UL41) is very important to viral replication.
  • This enzyme shuts off protein synthesis in the host, degrades host mRNA, helps in viral replication, and regulates gene expression of viral proteins.
  • The viral genome immediately travels to the nucleus but the VHS protein remains in the cytoplasm.
  • An enzyme shuts off protein synthesis in the host, degrades host mRNA, helps in viral replication, and regulates gene expression of viral proteins.

Viral Replication and Gene Expression

  • Replication of viruses primarily involves the multiplication of the viral genome.
  • Replication also involves synthesis of viral messenger RNA (mRNA) from "early" genes (with exceptions for positive sense RNA viruses), viral protein synthesis, possible assembly of viral proteins, then viral genome replication mediated by early or regulatory protein expression.
  • Viral replication usually takes place in the cytoplasm .
  • Uncoating of the viral RNA is mediated by receptor-dependent destabilization of the virus capsid (2).
  • Cleavage of the viral protein VPg is performed by a cellular phosphodiesterase, and translation of the viral RNA occurs by a cap-independent (IRES-mediated) mechanism (3).

General Features of Virus Replication

  • Viruses must first penetrate and enter the cell before viral replication can occur.
  • This is often called viral entry.
  • Uncoating is a process in which the viral capsid is removed: This may be by degradation by viral or host enzymes or by simple dissociation.
  • This is accomplished through synthesis of viral messenger RNA (mRNA) from "early" genes (with exceptions for positive sense RNA viruses), viral protein synthesis, possible assembly of viral proteins, then viral genome replication mediated by early or regulatory protein expression.
  • Whenever the host divides, the viral genome is also replicated.

Steps of Virus Infections

  • Viral infection involves the incorporation of viral DNA into a host cell, replication of that material, and the release of the new viruses.
  • Once inside the cell, the viral capsid is degraded and the viral nucleic acid is released, which then becomes available for replication and transcription.
  • The replication mechanism depends on the viral genome.
  • The viral mRNA directs the host cell to synthesize viral enzymes and capsid proteins, and to assemble new virions.
  • If a host cell does not provide the enzymes necessary for viral replication, viral genes supply the information to direct synthesis of the missing proteins.

Virus Attachment and Genome Entry

  • Attachment is a specific binding between viral capsid proteins and specific receptors on the host cellular surface.
  • Viral populations do not grow through cell division, because they are acellular.
  • Attachment is a specific binding between viral capsid proteins and specific receptors on the host cellular surface.
  • Attachment to the receptor can induce the viral envelope protein to undergo changes that results in the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, or changes of non-enveloped virus surface proteins that allow the virus to enter.
  • This is often called "viral entry. " The infection of plant and fungal cells is different from that of animal cells.

Viral Genomes

  • The viral genome is the complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
  • Viral diseases have an enormous impact on human health worldwide.
  • An enormous variety of genomic structures can be seen among viral species as a group, they contain more structural genomic diversity than plants, animals, archaea, or bacteria.
  • Viral genomes are circular, as in the polyomaviruses, or linear, as in the adenoviruses .
  • A viral genome, irrespective of nucleic acid type, is almost always either single-stranded or double-stranded.

Replicative Cycle of Influenza A

  • Delivering the genome to a site where it can produce new copies of viral proteins and RNA
  • The hemagglutinin protein fuses the viral envelope with the vacuole's membrane.
  • The M2 ion channel allows protons to move through the viral envelope and acidify the core of the virus, which causes the core to dissemble and release the viral RNA and core proteins.
  • Newly synthesized viral proteins are either secreted through the Golgi apparatus onto the cell surface (in the case of neuraminidase and hemagglutinin, Step 5b) or transported back into the nucleus to bind vRNA and form new viral genome particles (Step 5a).
  • The vRNA and viral core proteins leave the nucleus and enter this membrane protrusion (Step 6).

Classic Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of RNA viruses.
  • The viral hemorrhagic (or haemorrhagic) fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses that may be caused by five distinct families of RNA viruses: the families Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Rhabdoviridae.
  • Ebola has five viral subtypes including Zaire, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Tai Forest (formerly Ivory Coast), and Reston.
  • For most viral hemorrhagic fevers, there is no effective treatment other than supportive care.
  • List the types, symptoms and routes of transmission for viral hemorrhagic fevers
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We found at least 10 Websites Listing below when search with hemorrhagic fever virus list on Search Engine

List of VHF Diseases Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) CDC

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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) CDC

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  • A list of these viruses appears in the VSPB disease information index
  • The Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, also in the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, works with the non-BSL-4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever.

15.9F: Classic Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

  • The family Flaviviridae include dengue, yellow fever, and two viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis group that cause VHF: Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease virus
  • Transmission By contact with the urine, feces, saliva, or blood of animal hosts such as rodents, fruit bats, subhuman primates, and duikers (antelope)

WHO Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral

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  • Viral haemorrhagic fevers: WHO health topic page on viral haemorrhagic fevers provides links to descriptions of activities, reports, publications, statistics, news, multimedia and events, as well as contacts and cooperating partners in the various WHO programmes and offices working on this topic

CDC Helps Identify Virus Behind Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak

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Viral sequences in samples from several infected individuals helped the team place Chapare within the "New World" arenavirus collection — evolutionary cousins to hemorrhagic fever-related

Hemorrhagic Fevers: MedlinePlus

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  • Summary Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses caused by four families of viruses
  • These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. VHFs have common features: they affect many organs, they damage the blood vessels, and they affect the body's ability to regulate itself.

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) CDC

  • Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) National Notifiable Time Periods
  • National Notifiable Condition/Subtype From Year To Year 2010 : Current : Viral hemorrhagic fever 2010 : Current : Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: 2010 : Current : Ebola virus: 2010

List of Hemorrhagic Fever Medications

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  • Medications for Hemorrhagic Fever
  • Hemorrhagic Fever is a syndrome that occurs in infections by a number of different viruses, including Dengue fever and Ebola fever
  • Clinical manifestations include high fever, scattered petechiae, bleeding from gastrointestinal tract and other organs, hypotension, and shock.

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Summary NNDSS

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  • Access Viral hemorrhagic fever national notifiable time periods and case definitions
  • Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content
  • NOTICE: The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System …

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Symptoms and Treatment

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  • Some viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever can spread from one person to another, once an initial person has become infected
  • Ebola, Marburg, Lassa and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses are examples
  • This type of secondary transmission of the virus can occur directly, through close contact with infected people or their body fluids.

Omsk hemorrhagic fever Genetic and Rare Diseases

Omsk hemorrhagic fever (OHF), caused by Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), is an infection that occurs primarily in the western Siberia regions of Omsk, Novosibirsk, Kurgan

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever – Epidemiology

  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of illnesses caused by viruses
  • These viruses live, for the most part, in rodents (e.g., rats and mice) and arthropods (e.g., mosquitoes and ticks)
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers affect multiple systems of the body and tend to cause hemorrhaging (bleeding)
  • Five distinct families of viruses cause hemorrhagic

Hemorrhagic Fevers And Diseases Encyclopedia.com

  • Four main groups of viruses exist that cause hemorrhagic disease or fever: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunya-viruses, and flaviviruses
  • Arenaviruses cause Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Sabia-associated hemorrhagic fever, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa fever.

Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) House Rabbit Society

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  • Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) is a highly contagious disease caused by a calicivirus that affects rabbits
  • This includes wild and domesticated European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), from which our own domesticated rabbits are descended.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tickborne agent that was first definitively recognized in the Crimea at the end of World War II when Soviet troops returned to assist in cultivation of tick-infested land left fallow during the war
  • 12, 13 The agent was named Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus and was subsequently found to be

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) CDC

Detection of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) viral antigens in blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection VHF viral isolation in cell culture for blood or tissues Detection of VHF viral genes using reverse transcriptase with polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT …


Transmission

In the year 1848, Nott proposed that yellow fever was transmitted by the bite of mosquito. This proposal was taken further and in 1900, Walter Reed demonstrated the transmission of yellow fever by mosquitoes using human volunteers. In 1901, Walter Reed demonstrated that this disease was due to a filterable agent. Hence, yellow fever was the first human disease revealed to be caused by a filterable agent.
The transmission cycles of yellow fever virus and the ecological inter-relationships of its vectors and reservoirs are complex. Humans are infected when the virus is transmitted to humans from monkeys by mosquitoes. This type of transmission is called as horizontal transmission). Transovarial pattern of transmission is followed in the mosquito vector (Mosquitoes can pass the virus to their next generation, also called as vertical transmission). Three cycles of transmission have been recognized viz. enzootic forest cycle, jungle yellow fever cycle and urban yellow fever cycle (Narins 2003).
- Enzootic forest cycle: Haemagogus mosquitoes are the major amplification hosts for the virus and monkeys are transient vertebrate hosts. Monkeys experience a short lived viremia whereas the mosquitoes remain infected for life and may transmit the virus to humans (when people venture into the forests).
- Jungle yellow fever cycle (or sylvatic cycle): This cycle is seen in tropical rainforests where the infected monkeys pass the virus to mosquitoes biting them. Human infections occur when infected forest mosquitoes invade nearby areas. A single infected human may transmit the disease to many others and epidemic out breaks may result. The mosquitoes responsible for transmission are Haemagogus, Aedes simpsoni, Aedes aegypti, Aedes furcifer and Aedes africanus.
- Urban yellow fever cycle: This cycle is exclusively maintained by Aedes aegypti. It was the dominant form of yellow fever in urban areas before the extensive mosquito control programs (Zuckerman 2009).


We found at least 10 Websites Listing below when search with treatment for viral hemorrhagic fever on Search Engine

CDC Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Treatment & Infection Control

  • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: Treatment & Infection Control
  • Interim Guidance for Managing Patients with Suspected Viral Hemorrhagic Fever in U.S
  • May 19, 2005 update to previous recommenda tions ( MMWR 1995 Jun 3044 (25):475-479) Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Healthcare Setting.

Management of Patients With Suspected Viral Hemorrhagic Fever

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  • Treatment is supportive and may require intensive care
  • Limited information exists on the efficacy of antiviral drugs or immune plasma to prevent or ameliorate Ebola hemorrhagic fever
  • Ribavirin shows no in vitro activity.

Treatment of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers With Intravenous

  • Department of Defense operations have resulted in the deployment of personnel to areas endemic for Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF): Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) or Lassa Fever
  • Unfortunately, beyond supportive care, there is no approved therapy for treating either infection.

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs): Symptoms, Treatment

  • Treatment usually involves managing the symptoms of the disease and varies according to the virus involved
  • It often includes fluids for hydration, delivered intravenously (through a needle inserted into a vein) or orally (by mouth)
  • What complications are associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs)?

Treatment of viral hemorrhagic fevers with ribavirin.

  • Treatment of viral hemorrhagic fevers with ribavirin
  • PMID: 1421687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) CDC

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  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) refer to a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses
  • In general, the term “viral hemorrhagic fever” is used to describe a severe multisystem syndrome (multisystem in that multiple organ systems in the body are affected).

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Symptoms and Treatment

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Patients with viral hemorrhagic fevers usually receive only supportive therapy there is no other established cure for viral hemorrhagic fevers.

Treatment and cure for viral hemorrhagic fever

  • While my fever isn't gone, the hospital treatment has left me feeling much better
  • However down with dengue hemorrhagic fever

Pediatric Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Treatment & Management

  • The 12 distinct enveloped RNA viruses that cause most viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) cases are members of 4 families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, and Flaviviridae
  • Disease severity resulting from infection by these agents varies widely, but the most extreme manifestations include circulatory instability, increased vascular permeab

Viral hemorrhagic fevers: advancing the level of treatment

  • The management of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) has mainly focused on strict infection control measures, while standard clinical interventions that are provided to patients with other life-threatening conditions are rarely offered to patients with VHFs
  • Despite its complexity, a proper clinical case management of VHFs is neither futile nor is it lacking in scientific rationale.

CDC Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Emergency Preparedness

  • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: Disease/Virus Information
  • Specimen Submission/Laboratory Testing
  • Related Bioterrorism Resources.

Viral hemorrhagic fevers Symptoms and treatment of viral

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  • Pathogenetic treatment of viral hemorrhagic fever, aimed at detoxification, rehydration and correction of hemorrhagic syndrome, is the main in most cases of viral hemorrhagic fevers
  • Antiviral treatment of viral hemorrhagic fever with ribavirin is effective in viral hemorrhagic fevers, caused only by certain viruses from the Arenaviridae and

Molecular approaches for the treatment of hemorrhagic

Viruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in man belong to the following virus groups: togavirus (Chikungunya), flavivirus (dengue, yellow fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever), arenavirus (Argentinian hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever), filovirus (Ebola, Marburg), phlebovirus (Rift Valley fever), nairovirus (Crimian-Congo hemorrhagic fever) and …


Diseases

Diagnosis of microbial diseases calls upon numerous techniques to help identify and characterize the pathogenic agent.

The epidermis includes five main layers: the stratum corneum, stratum lucidium, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum germinativum.

The skin flora, more properly referred to as the skin microbiome or skin microbiota, are the microorganisms that reside on the skin.

Bacterial skin infections include impetigo, erysipelas, and cellulitis.

Virus-related cutaneous conditions include cold sores, shingles, and warts.

Common fungal skin diseases include athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm.

Parasites can cause skin infections and common examples include creeping eruption, lice, and scabies.

Many structures in the human eye, such as the cornea and fovea, process light so it can be deciphered by rods and cones in the retina.

A small number of bacteria are normally present in the conjunctiva.

Conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva, most commonly due to an infection.

Fungi and viruses such as herpes simplex can cause eye infections.

The primary function of the nervous system is to coordinate and control the various functions of our body.

The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord, while the PNS is a network of nerves linking the body to the brain and spinal cord.

Meningitis is inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

Botulism is a rare but sometimes fatal paralytic illness caused by botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis.

Tetanus is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers.

Botulinum toxin is a protein and neurotoxin, which blocks neuromuscular transmission through decreased acetylcholine release.

Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis in warm-blooded animals.

Poliomyelitis is an infection by the polio virus that affects the motor neurons of the central nervous system.

Hantaviruses are negative-sense RNA viruses that sometimes lead to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans.

Arboviral encephalitis (acute swelling in the brain) is caused by a group of arthropod-transmitted viruses.

Rickettsia is a genus of bacteria that can be transmitted by arthropod vectors to humans, causing diseases.

Lyme disease is caused by bacteria from the Borrelia genus.

West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne arbovirus found in temperate and tropical regions of the world.

The plague is an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria Yersinia pestis.

Cryptococcosis is a disease caused by fungi that can be fatal.

Sleeping sickness is caused by a protozoa transmitted by the tsetse fly.

Amoebic meningoencephalitis is an often-fatal central nervous system infection caused by Naegleria fowleri.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in cows.

Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (vCJD) is a fatal neurological disorder which is caused by prions.

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is the most common persistent fatigue syndrome that affects people.

The lymphatic system plays a prominent role in immune function, fatty acid absorption, and removal of interstitial fluid from tissues.

Both the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system are susceptible to diseases caused by microorganisms.

The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels and associated lymphoid organs.

The circulatory system has a defence against microbial invaders in the form of the lymphatic system.

Septic shock occurs when a body's response to an infection (sepsis) leads to life-threatening low blood pressure.

Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the inner surface of the heart or heart valves caused by the presence of bacteria in the blood.

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that can develop as a complication of inadequately treated strep throat.

Tularemia is an infection caused by the Gram-negative bacteria Francisella tularensis.

Brucellosis is an infectious disease that occurs from contact with animals carrying Brucella bacteria.

Anthrax is a rare, infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis that can spread from animals to humans.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that arises when a considerable mass of body tissue dies.

Burkitt's lymphoma is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a cancer in the lymphatic system.

Mononucleosis is an infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and results in flu-like symptoms.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the herpesvirus family and is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of herpesvirus that largely affects infants and the immunocompromised.

Chikungunya (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne viral disease which causes fever and severe joint pain.

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of RNA viruses.

As human habitation expands, new viral hemorrhagic fevers are infecting humans.

Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted via the reduviid bug.

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and its life cycle mandates a definitive host which are cats.

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals caused by various species of the protist Plasmodium.

Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania and presents itself in two forms: cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis.

Babesiosis is a malaria-like parasitic disease caused by infection with Babesia, a parasite transmitted to human hosts by ticks.

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by various species of trematodes or "flukes," which are of the genus Schistosoma.

Swimmer's itch is a result of an immune reaction in response to the penetration of the skin by a schistosome.

The respiratory system include lungs, airways and respiratory muscles. Ventilation is the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung.

Airborne diseases are characterized by diseases that are transmitted through the air via the presence of a pathogen.

Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the throat that has many causes, some of which are bacterial infections.

Scarlet fever is caused by a bacteriophage that infects Streptococcus pyogenes.

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that is largely benign unless left untreated, at which point very harmful toxins are produced.

Otitis media, or earache, is the inflammation of the middle ear and is often due to bacterial infections.

Pertussis, more commonly known as whooping cough, is a bacterial infection of the upper respiratory system.

Tuberculosis is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious bacterial disease that mainly affects the lungs.

Pneumonia is an inflammatory lung disease that can lead to problems with breathing, often caused by bacterial infections.

The common cold is caused by several different viruses and is the most common human viral infection.

Viral pneumonia, one of the two leading causes of pneumonia, more commonly affects children.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory tract infections in humans.

Influenza is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae that affects birds and mammals.

Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii.

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) or pneumocystosis is a form of pneumonia, caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.

Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the organism Blastomyces dermatitidis.

Sporotrichosis is a disease caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii.

The human gastrointestinal tract refers to the stomach and intestine, and sometimes to all the structures from the mouth to the anus.

Gut flora consist of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of animals and are the largest reservoir of human flora.

The mouth contains a wide variety of oral bacteria, but only a few specific species of bacteria are believed to cause tooth and gum infections.

Dental caries cause demineralization of the hard tissues and destruction of the organic matter of the tooth.

Plaque-induced inflammatory lesions make up the vast majority of periodontal diseases, which are divided into peridontitis or gingivitis.


the amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animal's total body mass

Arboviral Encephalitis

  • Arboviral encephalitis are a group of arthropod-transmitted viruses that cause encephalitis (acute swelling in the brain).
  • Arboviral encephalitis are found in many places throughout the world, and include California encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, St.
  • Louis encephalitis, Tick-borne encephalitis, and West Nile fever.
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system.
  • Sheep ticks (Ixodes ricinus) such as this engorged female transmit encephalitis.

West Nile Virus

  • This was until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996, with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease.
  • Discuss the causes, symptoms and diseases (West Nile encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis and poliomyelitis) caused by the West Nile virus (WNV)

Rabies

  • Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis in warm-blooded animals.
  • Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals.

Classic Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

  • The family Flaviviridae include dengue, yellow fever , and two viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis group that cause VHF: Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease virus.

Fungi

  • Cryptococcus neoformans causes severe forms of meningitis and meningo-encephalitis in patients with HIV infection and AIDS.

Early Homo

Infectious Disease Transmission

  • Biological vectors are often responsible for serious blood-borne diseases, such as malaria, viral encephalitis, Chagas disease, Lyme disease, and African sleeping sickness.

Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases

  • However, there was an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996, with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease.

Viral Genomes in Nature

Lyme Disease

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Examples of yellow fever in the following topics:

Inoculation of Live Animals

Classic Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

  • All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders and all can progress to high fever, shock and death in many cases.
  • The family Arenaviridae include the viruses responsible for Lassa fever, Lujo virus, Argentine, Bolivian, Brazilian and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fevers.
  • The family Flaviviridae include dengue, yellowfever , and two viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis group that cause VHF: Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease virus.
  • Signs and symptoms of VHFs include fever and bleeding diathesis.
  • The only licensed vaccine available is for yellowfever.

Vaccine Safety

  • Vaccines carry risks, ranging from rashes or tenderness at the site of injection to fever-associated seizures.
  • Vaccines carry risks, ranging from rashes or tenderness at the site of injection to fever-associated seizures called febrile convulsions and dangerous infections in those with compromised immune systems.
  • These include current smallpox vaccines that cannot safely be given to immunocompromised people the tuberculosis vaccine, which is not recommended for HIV-positive infants and the yellow-fever vaccine, which puts elderly people at particular risk of a yellow-fever-like illness.

Arthropods as Vectors

  • Additional examples of mosquitoes include the Aedes mosquito which is a vector for avian malaria, dengue fever, and yellowfever.

Leptospirosis

  • Leptospirosis (also known as Weil's Syndrome, canicola fever, canefield fever, nanukayami fever, 7-day fever, Rat Catcher's Yellows, Fort Bragg fever, black jaundice, and Pretibial fever) is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira, and affects humans as well as other animals.
  • Symptoms can range from none to mild such as headaches, muscle pains, and fevers to severe with bleeding from the lungs or meningitis.
  • If the infection causes the person to turn yellow, have kidney failure and bleeding it is then known as Weil's disease.

Safety in the Microbiology Laboratory

  • Bacteria and viruses that cause only mild disease to humans, or are difficult to contract via aerosol in a lab setting, such as hepatitis A, B, and C, influenza A, Lyme disease, salmonella, mumps, measles, scrapie, dengue fever, and HIV.
  • Bacteria and viruses that can cause severe to fatal disease in humans, but for which vaccines or other treatments exist, such as anthrax, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, SARS virus, tuberculosis, typhus, Rift Valley fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, yellowfever, and malaria.
  • Viruses and bacteria that cause severe to fatal disease in humans, and for which vaccines or other treatments are not available, such as Bolivian and Argentine hemorrhagic fevers, Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Marburg virus, Ebola virus, hantaviruses, Lassa fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and other hemorrhagic diseases.

Scarlet Fever

  • Scarlet fever is caused by a bacteriophage that infects Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • Scarlet fever is an infectious disease which most commonly affects 4-8 year-old children.
  • Symptoms include sore throat, fever, and a characteristic red rash .
  • Scarlet fever is caused by secretion of pyrogenic (fever inducing) exotoxins by the infected Streptococcus.
  • The rosy cheeks and white area around the mouth are typical symptoms of scarlet fever.

Typhoid Fever

  • Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid, is a common, worldwide bacterial disease.
  • The disease has been known by many names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever or pythogenic (originating from filth or putrefaction) fever.
  • This delirium gives typhoid its nickname of "nervous fever".
  • Typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal.
  • Summarize the four stages of untreated typhoid fever and methods of preventing it

Brucellosis (Undulant Fever)

  • Brucellosis, also called Bang's disease, Crimean fever, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever, is a highly-contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized milk or meat from infected animals or close contact with their secretions.
  • Brucellosis induces inconstant fevers, sweating, weakness, anaemia, headaches, depression, and muscular and bodily pain.
  • In the first stage of the disease, septicemia occurs and leads to the classic triad of undulant fevers, sweating (often with characteristic smell, likened to wet hay), and migratory arthralgia and myalgia.

Rheumatic Fever

  • Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that can develop as a complication of inadequately treated strep throat.
  • Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that occurs following a Streptococcus pyogenes infection, such as streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) or scarlet fever, that affects the peri-arteriolar connective tissue.
  • However the antibodies may also react against the myocardium and joints, producing the symptoms of rheumatic fever.
  • Acute rheumatic fever is treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin and corticosteroids.
  • Last century, infections by S. pyogenes claimed many lives especially since the organism was the most important cause of puerperal fever and scarlet fever.
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  • ypertension
  • diastolic pressure
  • primary (essential) hypertension
  • flow
  • pressure
  • secondary hypertension
  • resistance
  • vasodilation
  • hypertension
  • systolic pressure
  • myocardial infarction (heart attacks)
  • vasoconstriction

Extremes in Blood Pressure

  • Chronically elevated blood pressure is called hypertension, while chronically low blood pressure is called hypotension.
  • Blood pressures above this are classed as hypertension and those below are hypotension, both considered medical conditions.
  • Hypotension is a medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is reduced below 100/60 mmHg.
  • Hypotension is best understood as a physiological state rather than a disease and is often associated with shock, though not necessarily indicative of it.
  • For some people who exercise and are in top physical condition, hypotension is a sign of good health and fitness.

Hantavirus

  • The symptoms of HFRS can be split into five phases: febrile, hypotensive, oliguric, diuretic, and convalescent.
  • The hypotensive phase occurs when the blood platelet levels drop, and can lead to tachycardia and hypoxemia.
  • Paraphrase the causes of hantavirus and the phases of symptoms: febrile, hypotensive, oliguric, diuretic and convalescent

Types of Shock

  • Septic shock is the most common cause of distributive shock and is caused by an overwhelming systemic infection that cannot be cleared by the immune system, resulting in vasodilation and hypotension.
  • Anaphylactic shock is caused by a severe reaction to an allergen, leading to the release of histamine that causes widespread vasodilation and hypotension.
  • Neurogenic shock arises due to damage to the central nervous system, which impairs cardiac function by reducing heart rate and loosening the blood vessel tone, resulting in severe hypotension.

Measuring Blood Pressure

  • Low blood pressure, or hypotension, is indicated when the systolic number is persistently below 90 mmHg.

Adrenal Gland Disorders

  • If not treated, adrenal insufficiency may result in severe abdominal pains, diarrhea, vomiting, profound muscle weakness and fatigue, depression, extremely low blood pressure (hypotension), weight loss, kidney failure, changes in mood and personality, and shock (adrenal crisis).
  • Symptoms may also include weakness, tiredness, dizziness, low blood pressure that falls further when standing (orthostatic hypotension), cardiovascular collapse, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Noncholera Vibrios

  • Medical therapy consists of the following: prompt initiation of effective antibiotic therapy (doxycycline or a quinolone), intensive medical therapy with aggressive fluid replacement, vasopressors for hypotension and septic shock, early fasciotomy within 24 hours after development of clinical symptoms in patients with necrotizing fasciitis, early debridement of the infected wound, expeditious and serial surgical evaluation and intervention to prevent rapid deterioration, especially in patients with necrotizing fasciitis or compartment syndrome.

Classic Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

  • Manifestations of VHF often also include flushing of the face and chest, petechiae, frank bleeding, edema, hypotension, and shock.

Plague

  • Septicemic plague is a deadly blood infection symptoms include hypotension, hepatosplenomegaly, delirium, seizures in children, shock, lethargy, and fever.
  • Symptoms include fever, chills, coughing, chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis, lethargy, hypotension, and shock.

Pericarditis

  • Other physical signs include a patient in distress, positional chest pain, diaphoresis (excessive sweating), and possibility of heart failure in form of precardial tamponade causing pulsus paradoxus, and the Beck's triad of hypotension (due to decreased cardiac output), distant (muffled) heart sounds, and JVD (jugular vein distention).
  • This can be seen in patients who are experiencing the classic signs of pericarditis but then show signs of relief, and progress to show signs of cardiac tamponade which include decreased alertness and lethargy, pulsus paradoxus (decrease of at least 10 mmHg of the systolic blood pressure upon inspiration), hypotension (due to decreased cardiac index), JVD (jugular vein distention from right sided heart failure and fluid overload), distant heart sounds on auscultation, and equilibration of all the diastolic blood pressures on cardiac catheterization due to the constriction of the pericardium by the fluid.

Syncope

  • Syncope, the medical term for fainting, is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery due to global cerebral hypoperfusion that most often results from hypotension.
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